Ting's Square 程式寫作之路

[Day28] Git rebase 修改commit歷史記錄

Tags:  #git    #note  
Total : 587 words.

雖然commit就像承諾一樣一諾千金,但是遇到要修改的情形該怎麼辦才好?今天我們要來介紹一個可以修改commit的指令: git rebase


目錄:


1. 修改commit 訊息 git rebase -i

git rebase 使用互動模式

解法一 (source tree)

要修改的commit,找到其init commit按右鍵 ->
Rebase children of bb0c9c2 interactively… ->
點選想修改的commit, 按 Edit Message -> OK

結果: 造成蝴蝶效應
修改的那一點commit, 和其 children commit的index全部改變

解法二 (CL)

指令: git rebase -i bb0c9c2 (C1的index) 意思: 修改從C6到C1的歷史訊息!

  1. 修改了C2的Commit訊息
  2. 因而產生新的歷史記錄C3~C6
  3. 分支及HEAD移到新的C6
  4. 原C3~C6脫離
  5. 新C3~C6看起來一樣,卻是不同的commit (平行時空的兩條分支)
pick 7de7617 add pig
pick a252c2a add fish

# Rebase 1b8128c..a252c2a onto 1b8128c (2 command(s))
#
# Commands:
# p, pick = use commit
# r, reword = use commit, but edit the commit message
# e, edit = use commit, but stop for amending
# s, squash = use commit, but meld into previous commit
# f, fixup = like "squash", but discard this commit's log message
# x, exec = run command (the rest of the line) using shell
# d, drop = remove commit
#
# These lines can be re-ordered; they are executed from top to bottom.
#
# If you remove a line here THAT COMMIT WILL BE LOST.
#
# However, if you remove everything, the rebase will be aborted.
#
# Note that empty commits are commented out
~                                                                               
~                                                                               
"~/git-examples2/git-rebase/.git/rebase-merge/git-rebase-todo" 21L, 684C

2. 刪除commit或調整commit的順序

任務:
想把cute animals移到pig的後面

解法 (source tree)

要修改的commit,找到其init commit按右鍵 ->
Rebase children of bb0c9c2 interactively… ->
拖拉或是點選上下

children commit的index受到影響

3. 把多個commit合併成一個 squash

同一組功能的修改commit一次就好

解法 (source tree)

要修改的commit,找到其parent commit按右鍵 ->
Rebase children of bb0c9c2 interactively… ->

add cat1, add cat2, add 2 cats 3個commit squash在一起

Squash with previous

把cat訊息改成add all cats

add 2 cats (+2 squashed commits)
Squashed commits:
[1de2076] add cat 2
[cd82f29] add cat 1

把dog訊息add all dogs 較簡潔

add dog 2 (+1 squashed commit)
Squashed commits:
[0e131b6] add dog 1

4. 把一個commit拆成多個

1. 先使用 reset -i,移動HEAD

要修改的commit,找到其init commit按右鍵 ->
Rebase children of bb0c9c2 interactively… ->

勾選add all catsAmend Commit ->

  • HEAD已經移到 add database settings
  • 提醒git在rebase過程中,先在這個commit停下來

2. 接下來的步驟用 reset

點選上一顆parent commit按右鍵 ->
提醒在rebase過程中,先在這個commit停下來
Reset current branch to this commit ->
Reset to Commit…
Using mode: Mixed - Keep working copy but reset index

  • 重點: 此時是reset –mix (很多檔案都回到Uncommit的狀態)
  • 把4個檔案丟回工作目錄,再兩兩合併)

add database settings 檢查當時的狀態 總共有 cat1.html, cat2.html, cat3.html, cat4.html
四個檔案,兩兩合併commit

 cat1.html, cat2.html => commit -m "add cat1 & cat2"  
 cat3.html, cat4.html => commit -m "add cat3 & cat4"  
  • HEAD已經移到 add cat3 & cat4

## 3.最後,Actions -> Continue Rebase

rebase 還沒完成,只是在中間的過程先調整
告訴後面的branch可以接回來了

這個小節比較複雜,加上我的sourcetree是日文版(為了學習語文的目的),所以試了好多次。最後終於成功了!!開心 :D

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