Ting's Square 程式寫作之路

[Day25] Git 簡介

Tags:  #git    #note  
Total : 1079 words.

Git是目前最多人使用的分散式版本控制系統,優點主要有三個:

  1. 可讓檔案回到指定的時間點狀態
  2. 可了解檔案內容如何變化
  3. 可以知道每一行程式碼是誰寫的

Git的發明者: Linus Torvalds (也就是開發Linux的大神!)


目錄:


常用Terminal指令

iTerm2: https://www.iterm2.com/

Q: 爲什麼要學指令? A: 有些指令在GUI(圖型介面軟體)找不到

重點:要在對的地方(資料夾/目錄)下對的指令!

印出目前工作資料夾: pwd (print working directory)

tingdeAir:~ tingtinghsu$ pwd
/Users/tingtinghsu

新增資料夾:mkdir (make directory)

建立新的資料夾

tingdeAir:~ tingtinghsu$ mkdir hello
tingdeAir:~ tingtinghsu$ ls
5x		Desktop		GitHub		Pictures	projects
Applications	Documents	Library		Public
Books		Downloads	Movies		dwhelper
Calibre Library	Dropbox		Music		hello

改變資料夾目錄: cd + 資料夾名稱 (change directory)

tingdeAir:~ tingtinghsu$ cd hello/
tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ pwd
/Users/tingtinghsu/hello

新增檔案:touch

建立檔案

tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ touch index.html
tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ ls
index.html

再touch一次同檔名的檔案:改變時間戳記

tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ touch index.html
tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ ls -al
total 0
drwxr-xr-x   3 tingtinghsu  staff    96  4 24 12:19 .
drwxr-xr-x+ 79 tingtinghsu  staff  2528  4 24 12:16 ..
-rw-r--r--   1 tingtinghsu  staff     0  4 24 17:19 index.html

回到上一層目錄 cd ..

tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ pwd
/Users/tingtinghsu/hello
tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ cd ..
tingdeAir:~ tingtinghsu$ pwd
/Users/tingtinghsu
tingdeAir:~ tingtinghsu$

列出資料夾下的所有檔案: ls -al (list all)

tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ ls -al
total 0
drwxr-xr-x   3 tingtinghsu  staff    96  4 24 12:19 .
drwxr-xr-x+ 79 tingtinghsu  staff  2528  4 24 12:16 ..
-rw-r--r--   1 tingtinghsu  staff     0  4 24 12:19 index.html

刪除檔案: rm (remove)

刪除檔案

tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ ls -al
total 0
drwxr-xr-x   4 tingtinghsu  staff   128  4 24 17:24 .
drwxr-xr-x+ 79 tingtinghsu  staff  2528  4 24 12:16 ..
-rw-r--r--   1 tingtinghsu  staff     0  4 24 17:24 images
-rw-r--r--   1 tingtinghsu  staff     0  4 24 17:19 index.html
tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ rm index.html
tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ ls
images

刪除資料夾: rm -r

刪除資料夾

tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ rm -r images
tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ ls

複製: cp (copy)

複製檔案並改檔名

tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ cp hello.html world.html
tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ ls
hello.html	world.html

移動檔案/更改檔名: mv (move)

  1. 移動檔案到另一個資料夾
tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ mkdir images
tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ ls
hello.html	images		world.html

tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ mv world.html images

tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ ls
hello.html	images
tingdeAir:hello tingtinghsu$ cd images/
tingdeAir:images tingtinghsu$ ls
world.html
  1. 更改檔名
tingdeAir:images tingtinghsu$ mv world.html pics.html
tingdeAir:images tingtinghsu$ ls
pics.html

git安裝

網址: https://git-scm.com/

git 的GUI軟體(Graphical User Interface, 圖形使用者介面) https://www.sourcetreeapp.com/

git --version

tingdeAir:~ tingtinghsu$ git --version
git version 2.6.3

git設定

檢視基本資料: git config --list

tingdeAir:images tingtinghsu$ git config --list
user.name=tingtinghsu
user.email=tingtinghsu[at]gmail

設定基本資料
git config --global user.name
git config --global user.email

初始化: git init

tingdeAir:git-demo tingtinghsu$ git init
Initialized empty Git repository in /Users/tingtinghsu/git-demo/.git/

tingdeAir:git-demo tingtinghsu$ ls -al
total 0
drwxr-xr-x   5 tingtinghsu  staff   160  4 24 18:45 .
drwxr-xr-x+ 79 tingtinghsu  staff  2528  4 24 18:43 ..
drwxr-xr-x   9 tingtinghsu  staff   288  4 24 18:45 .git
-rw-r--r--   1 tingtinghsu  staff     0  4 24 17:31 hello.html
drwxr-xr-x   3 tingtinghsu  staff    96  4 24 18:29 images

git 狀態

查詢 Git 狀態: git status

tingdeAir:git-demo tingtinghsu$ git status
On branch master

Initial commit

Untracked files:
  (use "git add <file>..." to include in what will be committed)

	hello.html
	images/

git 的三個狀態

  1. working 工作目錄

git add: working到staging

tingdeAir:git-demo tingtinghsu$ git add hello.html
tingdeAir:git-demo tingtinghsu$ git status
On branch master

Initial commit

Changes to be committed:
  (use "git rm --cached <file>..." to unstage)

	new file:   hello.html
  1. staging 暫存區域

git commit -m : staging到repository

tingdeAir:git-demo tingtinghsu$ git commit -m "add html"
[master (root-commit) 99a855b] add html
 1 file changed, 0 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 hello.html

Q: 為什麼要git add/git commit 兩段式?
A: 就像堆了一批貨再進倉庫一樣,要留下有意義的註記。

  1. repository 儲存庫

git push: repository 本地到遠端

git pull: repository 遠端到本地

檢視 git 記錄: git log

列出最近commit過的記錄

tingdeAir:git-demo tingtinghsu$ git log
commit 715717d24bd8250245ff8de446fb797887ac429c
Author: tingtinghsu <tingtinghsu.tw@gmail.com>
Date:   Wed Apr 24 21:41:32 2019 +0900

    add image file

commit 99a855baae705635f825178c29b4a97979e754fa
Author: tingtinghsu <tingtinghsu.tw@gmail.com>
Date:   Wed Apr 24 21:35:07 2019 +0900

    add html

git log --oneline : 列出一行記錄

tingdeAir:git-demo tingtinghsu$ git log --oneline
715717d add image file
99a855b add html

相關連結

HackMD筆記
我的GitHub帳號